When he Nature of the wars While warfare is generally undertaken for political reasons, the French Revolutionary wars were exceptional for the degree to which they were concerned with political considerations. They are associated above all with the appearance in France, and with the imposition by France on neighbouring states, of fundamental changes in the structure of the state and society. No other European wars have shown such intimacy with, or novelty in, political motives.
The ancestors of Napoleon descended from minor Italian nobility of Tuscan origin who had come to Corsica from Liguria in the 16th century. Napoleon was born there on 15 Augusttheir fourth child and third son. A boy and girl were born first but died in infancy. Napoleon was baptised as a Catholic.
The nationalist Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli ; portrait by Richard CoswayNapoleon was born the same year the Republic of Genoaa former commune of Italy transferred Corsica to France.
His father was an attorney who went on to be named Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI in The dominant influence of Napoleon's childhood was his mother, whose firm discipline restrained a rambunctious child.
Napoleon's noble, moderately affluent background afforded him greater opportunities to study than were available to a typical Corsican of the time. An examiner observed that Napoleon "has always been distinguished for his application in mathematics.
He is fairly well acquainted with history and geography This boy would make an excellent sailor". He trained to become an artillery officer and, when his father's death reduced his income, was forced to complete the two-year course in one year.
At this time, he was a fervent Corsican nationalistand wrote to Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli in May"As the nation was perishing I was born. Thirty thousand Frenchmen were vomited on to our shores, drowning the throne of liberty in waves of blood.
Such was the odious sight which was the first to strike me". He was a supporter of the republican Jacobin movement, organising clubs in Corsica,  and was given command over a battalion of volunteers.
He was promoted to captain in the regular army in Julydespite exceeding his leave of absence and leading a riot against French troops. With the help of his fellow Corsican Antoine Christophe SalicetiBonaparte was appointed artillery commander of the republican forces at the Siege of Toulon.
The assault on the position led to the capture of the city, but during it Bonaparte was wounded in the thigh. He was promoted to brigadier general at the age of Catching the attention of the Committee of Public Safetyhe was put in charge of the artillery of France's Army of Italy.
He devised plans for attacking the Kingdom of Sardinia as part of France's campaign against the First Coalition. Augustin Robespierre and Saliceti were ready to listen to the freshly promoted artillery general.
From Ormea, they headed west to outflank the Austro-Sardinian positions around Saorge. After this campaign, Augustin Robespierre sent Bonaparte on a mission to the Republic of Genoa to determine that country's intentions towards France.
According to Bourrienne, jealousy was responsible, between the Army of the Alps and the Army of Italy with whom Napoleon was seconded at the time. He also took part in an expedition to take back Corsica from the British, but the French were repulsed by the British Royal Navy.
As an infantry command, it was a demotion from artillery general—for which the army already had a full quota—and he pleaded poor health to avoid the posting.
He faced a difficult financial situation and reduced career prospects. Napoleon had seen the massacre of the King's Swiss Guard there three years earlier and realised that artillery would be the key to its defence.
Murat married one of Napoleon's sisters, becoming his brother-in-law; he also served under Napoleon as one of his generals. Bonaparte was promoted to Commander of the Interior and given command of the Army of Italy. The couple married on 9 March in a civil ceremony. He immediately went on the offensive, hoping to defeat the forces of Piedmont before their Austrian allies could intervene.
In a series of rapid victories during the Montenotte Campaignhe knocked Piedmont out of the war in two weeks. The French then focused on the Austrians for the remainder of the war, the highlight of which became the protracted struggle for Mantua. The Austrians launched a series of offensives against the French to break the siege, but Napoleon defeated every relief effort, scoring victories at the battles of CastiglioneBassanoArcoleand Rivoli.
The decisive French triumph at Rivoli in January led to the collapse of the Austrian position in Italy. At Rivoli, the Austrians lost up to 14, men while the French lost about 5, French forces in Southern Germany had been defeated by the Archduke Charles inbut the Archduke withdrew his forces to protect Vienna after learning about Napoleon's assault.
In the first encounter between the two commanders, Napoleon pushed back his opponent and advanced deep into Austrian territory after winning at the Battle of Tarvis in March Bonaparte marched on Venice and forced its surrender, ending 1, years of independence.
He also authorized the French to loot treasures such as the Horses of Saint Mark.Napoleon's rise to power. Napoleon's career largely resulted from the military innovations he inherited from the French Revolution, such as mass conscription which made possible the use of block tactics in order to attack in column and eliminated the need for supply lines, thus making French .
During the tumultuous years of the French Revolution, Napoleon fought well for the Republic, helping to defeat the British at Toulon.
For his services there, he was made a Brigadier General. After the Directory came to power, Napoleon married Josephine de Beauharnais and gained command of the French army in Italy, where, after defeating the.
FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF NAPOLEON TO POWER. 1. The French Revolution; The French Revolution contributed in the following ways: a) Napoleon’s rise to power was due to his close personal relationship with leaders of the French Revolution his involvement in the French revolution, brought him closer to the revolutionary leaders and.
And allow the actual Directory to come to power. So this once again, Napoleon was in the right place at the right time. And he was very competent in military tactics.
First Consul. At which point he is the authoritarian ruler of France. So we've gone from, over the course of the French Revolution, from where we had an absolute monarch.
Instead of improving, France descended further into corruption and chaos, and ushered in the rise of a new dictator -- Napoleon. Causes of the French Revolution Before the revolution, France had undertaken an enormous amount of debt due years of war with England.
During the French Revolution, Napoleon rose quickly in the army. Personal qualities and military capabilities gave Napoleon popular support. Napoleon received command of the French army, being a young general until , when, due to the discontent of the people towards the Directory, he and two directors overthrew the government.