Nationally representative probability sample of 2, youths aged years After controlling for family dysfunction, significant associations were found between CSA and increased levels of PTSD symptoms and school difficulties. Abused boys reported significantly more sadness then other children.
Experiencing abuse and neglect in childhood can lead to adverse outcomes in adulthood. The purpose of this blog is to indicate the potential long-term effects of child abuse and neglect that may extend into adulthood.
Types of abuse and neglect Child abuse and neglect refers to any behaviour by parents, caregivers, other adults or older adolescents that is outside the norms of conduct and entails a substantial risk of causing physical or emotional harm to a child or young person.
Such behaviours may be intentional or unintentional and can include acts of omission i. The five main subtypes of child abuse and neglect are physical abuse, emotional maltreatment, neglect, sexual abuse and witnessing family violence. For more information on the definitions of child abuse and neglect see What is Child Abuse and Neglect?
Factors affecting the consequences of abuse and neglect The consequences of experiencing child abuse and neglect will vary considerably. Critical factors that may influence the way child abuse and neglect affects adults include the frequency and duration of maltreatment and if more than one type of maltreatment has occurred.
Research suggests that maltreatment types are interrelated, that is, a large proportion of adults who experience childhood abuse or neglect are exposed to more than one type of abuse known as multi-type maltreatment.
In attempting to explain some of the adverse outcomes associated with chronic and multi-type maltreatment a concept that is often employed is complex trauma. Complex trauma reflects the multiple and interacting symptoms, disorders and multiple adverse experiences and the broad range of cognitive, affective and behavioural outcomes associated with prolonged trauma, particularly if occurring early in life and involving an interpersonal element e.
For further details on the chronic maltreatment, the interrelatedness of sub-types child abuse and neglect, and complex trauma, see Rarely an Isolated Incident: Other factors that may affect the consequences of child abuse and neglect on adult survivors include: Long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect The remainder of this blog explores the major negative physical, cognitive, psychological, behavioural and social consequences of child abuse and neglect that extend into adulthood.
The negative consequences associated with past histories of abuse and neglect are often interrelated, as one adverse outcome may lead to another e. Adverse consequences are broadly linked to all abuse types, however, where appropriate, associations are made between specific types of abuse and neglect and specific negative outcomes.
For a more detailed discussion of the impact of child abuse and neglect on children see, The Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect for Children and Adolescents.
In a study by Pears and Capaldiparents who had experienced physical abuse in childhood were significantly more likely to engage in abusive behaviours toward their own children or children in their care.
Oliverin a review of the research literature, concluded that an estimated one-third of children who are subjected to child abuse and neglect go on to repeat patterns of abusive parenting towards their own children. Kwong and colleagues determined that growing up in abusive family environments can teach children that the use of violence and aggression is a viable means for dealing with interpersonal conflict, which can increase the likelihood that the cycle of violence will continue when they reach adulthood.
In a prospective study by Widom and colleaguesall types of childhood victimisation physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect measured were associated with increased risk of lifetime re-victimisation. Physical health problems Adults with a history of child abuse and neglect are more likely than the general population to experience physical health problems including diabetes, gastrointestinal problems, arthritis, headaches, gynaecological problems, stroke, hepatitis and heart disease Felitti et al.
In a review of recent literature, Sachs-Ericsson et al. Using survey data from over 2, middle-aged adults in a longitudinal study in the United States, Springer et al.
It is unclear exactly how maltreatment experiences are related to physical health problems, although it seems likely there are a number of different causal mechanisms and mediating factors. For instance, some researchers suggest that poor health outcomes in adult survivors of child abuse and neglect could be due to the direct effects of physical abuse in childhood, the impact early life stress has on the immune system or to the greater propensity for adult survivors to engage in high-risk behaviours e.
Mental health problems Persisting mental health problems are a common consequence of child abuse and neglect in adults.
Depression is one of the most commonly occurring consequences of past abuse or neglect Kendall-Tackett, In an American representative study based on the National Co-morbidity Survey, adults who had experienced child abuse were two and a half times more likely to have major depression and six times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder compared to adults who had not experienced abuse Afifi et al.
The likelihood of such consequences increased substantially if adults had experienced child abuse along with parental divorce Afifi et al. In a prospective longitudinal study in the United States, Widom, DuMont, and Czaja found that children who were physically abused or experienced multiple types of abuse were at increased risk of lifetime major depressive disorder in early adulthood.
Further to this, a large, nationally representative study in the US reported that those who had experienced child physical abuse were at a higher risk for a range of psychiatric disorders in adulthood than those not reporting such abuse Sugaya et al. Disorders included in descending order of strength of association attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, drug abuse, nicotine dependence, generalised anxiety disorder, and major depressive disorder.Sexual child abuse is a type of maltreatment, violation, and exploitation that refers to the involvement of the child in sexual activity to provide sexual gratification or financial benefit to the perpetrator.
What is child abuse? Child abuse is an act or set of acts that results in serious harm or risk of harm, including physical or emotional abuse, exploitation or death, inflicted by a parent, caregiver, or other person who has responsibility for the initiativeblog.com a caregiver fails to act and it results in serious harm or risk of harm, it is also considered child abuse.
EMOTIONAL ABUSE. Emotional abuse according to Kinard () refers to an injury to a child’s psychological self. Jus as physical abuse consist of injury to a child’s body.
75 7 Child sexual abuse SUMMARY The dynamics of child sexual abuse differ from those of adult sexual abuse. In particular, children rarely disclose sexual abuse immediately after the event. Scandals involving the sexual abuse of under-age boys by homosexual priests have rocked the Roman Catholic Church.
At the same time, defenders of homosexuality argue that youth organizations such as the Boy Scouts should be forced to include homosexuals among their adult leaders. Effects of child abuse and neglect. All types of abuse and neglect leave lasting scars.
Some of these scars might be physical, but emotional scarring has long lasting effects throughout life, damaging a child’s sense of self, their future relationships, and ability to function at home, at work and at school.