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List of topics characterized as pseudoscience A topic, practice, or body of knowledge might reasonably be termed pseudoscientific when it is presented as consistent with the norms of scientific research, but it demonstrably fails to meet these norms.
The latter case was exemplified by astrology, which appeals to observation and experimentation. While it had astonishing empirical evidence based on observation, on horoscopes and biographiesit crucially failed to use acceptable scientific standards.
Popper argued  it was that the observation always fitted or confirmed the theory which, rather than being its strength, was actually its weakness. This prediction was particularly striking to Popper because it involved considerable risk.
The brightness of the Sun prevented this effect from being observed under normal circumstances, so photographs had to be taken during an eclipse and compared to photographs taken at night. Popper states, "If observation shows that the predicted effect is definitely absent, then the theory is simply refuted.
Thagard used astrology as a case study to distinguish science from pseudoscience and proposed principles and criteria to delineate them. Second, it has ignored outstanding problems such as the precession of equinoxes in astronomy.
Third, alternative theories of personality and behavior have grown progressively to encompass explanations of phenomena which astrology statically attributes to heavenly forces. Fourth, astrologers have remained uninterested in furthering the theory to deal with outstanding problems or in critically evaluating the theory in relation to other theories.
Thagard intended this criterion to be extended to areas other than astrology. He believed it would delineate as pseudoscientific such practices as witchcraft and pyramidologywhile leaving physicschemistry and biology in the realm of science.
Biorhythmswhich like astrology relied uncritically on birth dates, did not meet the criterion of pseudoscience at the time because there were no alternative explanations for the same observations.
The use of this criterion has the consequence that a theory can be scientific at one time and pseudoscientific at a later time. Moreover, some specific religious claims, such as the power of intercessory prayer to heal the sickalthough they may be based on untestable beliefs, can be tested by the scientific method.
Some statements and common beliefs of popular science may not meet the criteria of science. If the claims of a given field can be tested experimentally and standards are upheld, it is not pseudoscience, however odd, astonishing, or counterintuitive the claims are.
If claims made are inconsistent with existing experimental results or established theory, but the method is sound, caution should be used, since science consists of testing hypotheses which may turn out to be false. In such a case, the work may be better described as ideas that are "not yet generally accepted".
Protoscience is a term sometimes used to describe a hypothesis that has not yet been tested adequately by the scientific method, but which is otherwise consistent with existing science or which, where inconsistent, offers reasonable account of the inconsistency.
It may also describe the transition from a body of practical knowledge into a scientific field. Failure to make reasonable use of the principle of parsimonyi.
Lack of boundary conditions: Most well-supported scientific theories possess well-articulated limitations under which the predicted phenomena do and do not apply.
Lack of understanding of basic and established principles of physics and engineering  Over-reliance on confirmation rather than refutation[ edit ] Assertions that do not allow the logical possibility that they can be shown to be false by observation or physical experiment see also: Ignoratio elenchi  Assertion that claims which have not been proven false must therefore be true, and vice versa see: This evidence may be useful for the context of discovery i.
It is sometimes referred to as the selection effect. Promulgating to the status of facts excessive or untested claims that have been previously published elsewhere; an accumulation of such uncritical secondary reports, which do not otherwise contribute their own empirical investigation, is called the Woozle effect.
It is essentially impossible to prove a universal negative, so this tactic incorrectly places the burden of proof on the skeptic rather than on the claimant.
By remaining insulated from the peer review process, these proponents forgo the opportunity of corrective feedback from informed colleagues. Failure to provide adequate information for other researchers to reproduce the claims contributes to a lack of openness.
Scientific progress Lack of self-correction: The work Scientists Confront Velikovsky Cornell University, also delves into these features in some detail, as does the work of Thomas Kuhne. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions which also discusses some of the items on the list of characteristics of pseudoscience.
Statistical significance of supporting experimental results does not improve over time and are usually close to the cutoff for statistical significance.During the midth century, the philosopher Karl Popper emphasized the criterion of falsifiability to distinguish science from nonscience.
Statements, hypotheses, or theories have falsifiability or refutability if there is the inherent possibility that they can be proven initiativeblog.com is, if it is possible to conceive of an observation or an argument which negates them.
An On-line Shakespearean Glossary. Use this glossary to look up unusual words used in Shakespeare's plays. As this is a general glossary, you will want to make sure that the definition fits the context of the line in which the word is used.
I introduce just what blockchain is, and cover a broad array of applications (supply chain, healthcare, energy, finance, banking and insurance) and software packages (Hyperledger, Coco, Corda, Quorum, Stratumn, Guardtime and BigChainDb). Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
Pseudoscience is often characterized by contradictory, exaggerated or unfalsifiable claims; reliance on confirmation bias rather than rigorous attempts at refutation; lack of openness to .
the message of the stars by max heindel and augusta foss heindel an esoteric exposition of natal and medical astrology explaining the arts of reading the horoscope and. Wittmann Antique Militaria Flag Section. Mr. Wittmann is pictured with each flag for purposes of scale only.
He is not endorsing the NSDAP or their political philosophy.