In my research I have sought to establish such connections by exploring whether the design of software can inform the design of flexible parametric models. I argue there are connections between software engineering and parametric modelling centred around shared challenges, shared research methods, and shared design practices. These connections position software engineering as an important precedent for architects; a relationship that has implications for how parametric modelling is taught, for how parametric modelling is integrated in practice, and for how we conceive of parametric modelling.
Clearly, SES cannot be causing an association between brain size and intelligence if it does not correlate with brain size. If we focus on variability in the first principal component, we see that in this sample at least brain size and SES both explain significant, but independent, Chapter 8 discussion of this variability.
If we believe intelligence to be a major cause of SES differences e.
Conversely, if we believe SES is causing intelligence differences, then we have to believe that the differences SES causes are almost entirely unrelated to the differences associated with brain size. Of course, there might be other variables out there that explain some portion of the correlation between brain size and cognitive test performance, but they would obviously have to be considerably different from and essentially uncorrelated with SES.
In this model, genes that influence brain size are physically independent of the genes that influence general cognitive ability, but the two sets of genes come to be associated with each other in individuals simply Chapter 8 discussion of mating patterns.
Socio-economic standing, in turn, is correlated with IQ Herrnstein and Murray There also appears to be an association between height and socio-economic status independent of IQ Jensen There is no direct evidence that cross-assortative mating is the explanation for between-family correlation of brain size and general cognitive ability.
It is known, however, that there is significant assortative mating for IQ. On the other hand, it is difficult to see how cross-assortative mating would work at a conscious level.
One possibility might involve sexual selection for neotenous features, i. Jones reports a number of studies indicating that different neotenous features are judged to be more attractive.
In one study, pictures of individuals that differed in rated attractiveness were transformed by either slightly expanding the lower face while shrinking the upper head "positive cardioidal strain"or vice-versa "negative cardioidal strain". The pictures with positive cardioidal strain where consistently found less attractive than untransformed pictures.
– Discussion: Beyond Toolmaking Currently “little explicit connection” exists between the practice of parametric modelling and the practice of software engineering, writes Robert Woodbury (, 66). Chapter 8. Answer the following questions on a google docs document. Use complete sentences in your answers. What does Ralph say that angers Jack? View Chapter 8 Discussion Forum from SPEECH SPC at Miami Dade College, Miami. What is the difference between You-Messages and I-Messages? Give %(5).
Female raters, but not male raters, found faces subjected to negative cardioidal strain to be more attractive than untransformed faces. However, the extent to which this preference might be translated into cross-assortative mating between brain size and cognitive test performance is not known.
It should be noted that even if a correlation between brain size and cognitive test performance is only found between families, it is at least theoretically possible for size of the upper cranium to become a desired mating characteristic.
Prospective mating partners could still possibly use it as a very rough guide to the likelihood of future success, even if it is not directly genetically correlated.
This is because the correlation would then be a marker of the well-being of the parents, which in turn is probably not unrelated to reproductive success. Exactly how strong this effect might be has yet to be shown, but it would appear possible.
It of course begs the question of how the two variables became correlated in the first place. That is, much of the non-genetic influence tends to make siblings different from one another as distinct from non-genetic influences such as SES which tend to make families different from one another without differentially affecting siblings within families.
Similar findings have been found in several twin studies of genetic and environmental influences on personality traits BouchardRowethough most of the environmental variance in general cognitive ability IQ or g appears to be attributable to between-family influences Plomin et al.
Because of the relatively restricted range of cognitive ability in the present study, as evidenced by the fact that they had completed three years of college on average, it is likely that the within-family environmental variance accounts for a relatively larger portion of the total non-genetic variance in this sample.
This would tend to magnify any non-genetic effects and would contribute to but probably not completely explain the lack of within-family associations between neuroanatomy and behavior. It is at least theoretically possible that there are opposite environmental effects within families on the two variables.
Under this model, brain size and cognitive ability are indeed intrinsically linked that is, genes influencing brain volume directly influence cognitive performance as wellbut this causal association is overridden within families by strong within-family environmental effects influencing the two variables in opposite directions.
An environmental influence within families which tends to increase brain size would have to, at the same time, tend to decrease cognitive performance, and vice-versa.
The magnitude of these effects would have to be similar to the magnitude of the between family correlation, so as to negate the association within families. Furthermore, such an environmental influence would have to occur solely within families: This model, while not impossible a prioriwould not seem to be likely.
Though it is testable, I am not aware of any suggestions along these lines in the literature, and apparently no such influences have been proposed let alone tested. However, there is evidence in the present study that some form of sibling competition or birth-order effect is affecting within-family associations, which may have the effect of masking any genetic correlation between brain size and behavior that might actually exist.
For these calculations the age-corrections and 1st PC scores must be calculated from the overall data set of all 72 subjects as individuals. This can been seen most clearly by comparing the intercepts for the Figure 8. On an IQ scale this would translate to a difference of just under 8 points.Looking for the health implications of a traditional bone broth?
Learn more here in our curriculum discussion. – Discussion: Beyond Toolmaking Currently “little explicit connection” exists between the practice of parametric modelling and the practice of software engineering, writes Robert Woodbury (, 66).
Chapter 8: Discussion. The between-family data in this study are consistent with previous MRI studies in showing that there is a significant correlation between brain size and at . Chapter 8. Answer the following questions on a google docs document.
Use complete sentences in your answers. What does Ralph say that angers Jack? Learn discussion questions chapter 8 with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of discussion questions chapter 8 flashcards on Quizlet. 8. The Discussion Search this Guide Search.
Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: 8. The Discussion. The purpose of this guide is to provide advice on how to develop and organize a research paper in the social sciences.
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