September In high school I decided I was going to study philosophy in college. I had several motives, some more honorable than others. One of the less honorable was to shock people. College was regarded as job training where I grew up, so studying philosophy seemed an impressively impractical thing to do.
MooreRussell was shown to be partly responsible for the British revolt against idealisma philosophy greatly influenced by G. Hegel and his British apostle, F. Russell argued that this would make spacetime, science and the concept of number not fully intelligible.
Russell's logical work with Whitehead continued this project. Russell, in particular, saw formal logic and science as the principal tools of the philosopher.
Russell did not think we should have separate methods for philosophy. Russell thought philosophers should strive to answer the most general of propositions about the world and this would help eliminate confusions. In particular, he wanted to end what he saw as the excesses of metaphysics.
Russell adopted William of Ockham 's principle against multiplying unnecessary entities, Occam's Razoras a central part of the method of analysis.
The American philosopher and logician Willard Quine said Russell's work represented the greatest influence on his own work. This work was heavily influenced by Immanuel Kant. Russell later realised that the conception it laid out would make Albert Einstein's schema of space-time impossible.
Thenceforth, he rejected the entire Kantian program as it related to mathematics and geometryand rejected his own earliest work on the subject.
He mastered Peano's new symbolism and his set of axioms for arithmetic. Peano defined logically all of the terms of these axioms with the exception of 0, number, successor, and the singular term, the, which were the primitives of his system.
Russell took it upon himself to find logical definitions for each of these. He became convinced that the foundations of mathematics could be derived within what has since come to be called higher-order logic which in turn he believed to include some form of unrestricted comprehension axiom.
Russell then discovered that Gottlob Frege had independently arrived at equivalent definitions for 0, successor, and number, and the definition of number is now usually referred to as the Frege-Russell definition.
Before writing Principles, Russell became aware of Cantor's proof that there was no greatest cardinal numberwhich Russell believed was mistaken. The Cantor Paradox in turn was shown for example by Crossley to be a special case of the Russell Paradox.
This caused Russell to analyse classesfor it was known that given any number of elements, the number of classes they result in is greater than their number. This in turn led to the discovery of a very interesting class, namely, the class of all classes.
It contains two kinds of classes: Consideration of this class led him to find a fatal flaw in the so-called principle of comprehension, which had been taken for granted by logicians of the time.
He showed that it resulted in a contradiction, whereby Y is a member of Y, if and only if, Y is not a member of Y. This has become known as Russell's paradoxthe solution to which he outlined in an appendix to Principles, and which he later developed into a complete theory, the theory of types.
Aside from exposing a major inconsistency in naive set theoryRussell's work led directly to the creation of modern axiomatic set theory. It also crippled Frege's project of reducing arithmetic to logic.Why I Am Not a Christian and Other Essays on Religion and Related Subjects, Bertrand Russell تاریخ نخستین خوانش: شانردهم ماه آوریل سال میلادی4/5.
Why I Am Not a Christian and Other Essays on Religion and Related Subjects [Bertrand Russell, Paul Edwards] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. “Devastating in its use of cold logic, ” (The Independent), the classic essay collection that expresses the freethinker’s views to religion and challenges set notions in today’s society from one of the most influential.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM FRS (/ ˈ r ʌ s əl /; 18 May – 2 February ) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate. At various points in his life, Russell considered himself a liberal, a socialist and a pacifist, but he also admitted that he had "never been any of these.
[First published April ] We all know someone who’s intelligent, but who occasionally defends obviously bad ideas. Why does this happen?
How can smart people take up positions that defy any reasonable logic?
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how satanic lord bertrand russell became an evil man satanism, ritual sex and human sacrifice, bloodlines. The aspects of Bertrand Russell's views on philosophy cover the changing viewpoints of philosopher and mathematician Bertrand Russell (–), from .