References and Further Reading 1.
Introduction The main topic of the article is the Western metaphilosophy of the last hundred years or so. But that topic is broached via a sketch of some earlier Western metaphilosophies.
Once that sketch is in hand, the article defines the notion of metaphilosophy and distinguishes between explicit and implicit metaphilosophy. Then there is a consideration of how metaphilosophies might be categorized and an outline of the course of the remainder of the article.
Some Pre-Twentieth Century Metaphilosophy Socrates believed that the unexamined life — the unphilosophical life — was not worth living PlatoApology, 38a.
Indeed, Socrates saw his role as helping to rouse people from unreflective lives.
According to Aristotlephilosophy begins in wonder, seeks the most fundamental causes or principles of things, and is the least necessary but thereby the most divine of sciences Metaphysics, book alpha, sections 1—3. Later philosophers continued and even intensified the stress on philosophical practicality.
The Roman Cicero held that to study philosophy is to prepare oneself for death. The idea that philosophy is the handmaiden of theology, earlier propounded by the Hellenistic thinker Philo of Alexandriais most associated with the medieval age and particularly with Aquinas.
Aquinas resumed the project of synthesizing Christianity with Greek philosophy - a project that had been pursued already by various thinkers including AugustineAnselmand Boethius. Boethius was a politician inspired by philosophy — but the politics ended badly for him.
In those respects he resembles the earlier Seneca. And, like Seneca, Boethius wrote of the consolations of philosophy. Is philosophy a process or a product? What kind of knowledge can philosophy attain? How should one understand philosophical disagreement?
Is philosophy historical in some special or deep way?
Should philosophy make us better people? What method s and types of evidence suit philosophy? How should philosophy be written presuming it should be written at all? Is philosophy, in some sense, over — or should it be?
But how might one define metaphilosophy? One definition owes to Morris Lazerowitz. One alternative definition construes metaphilosophy as the philosophy of philosophy. Sometimes that definition intends this idea: That idea itself comes in two versions.
The thought here is this. Metaphilosophy, as the application of philosophy to philosophy itself, is simply one more instance of philosophy Wittgenstein Metaphilosophy stands to philosophy as philosophy stands to its subject matter or to other disciplines Reschersuch that, as Williamson puts it loc.
On this definition, metaphilosophy is post-philosophy. Indeed, those construals have little content until after one has a considerable idea of what philosophy is. Such indeed is a third possible reading of the philosophy-of-philosophy construal.
Now, just what does so pertain is moot; and there is a risk of being too unaccommodating. Explicit and Implicit Metaphilosophy Explicit metaphilosophy is metaphilosophy pursued as a subfield of, or attendant field to, philosophy.
Metaphilosophy so conceived has waxed and waned.
In the early twenty-first century, it has waxed in Europe and in the Anglophone English-speaking world. This article will revisit all of those topics in one way or another. However, even when waxing, metaphilosophy generates much less activity than philosophy. Certainly the philosophical scene contains few book-length pieces of metaphilosophy.Even though the affirmative action policies deliver a way of inclusion by including indigenous individuals into the regular higher education and national development path, they fail to address the key demand (recognition) and .
Civitas Porto Alegre v. 9 n. 3 p. set.-dez. Affirmative action, recognition, self-respect Axel Honneth and the phenomenological deficit of critical theory Ação afirmativa. The provincial epigraphic habit is a political tool of self–promotion used by local power groups which appeared after the Roman conquest.
This elitist approach to local epigraphy is based on the configuration of a new social system rooted in inequality, a system imposed by Rome on the conquered communities which finds its articulation in the. The Recognition Preamble to Any Charter in 9 Spreadsheets: Guaranteed Income, Affirmative Action, and Protecting Diversity By Tristan Tondino Abstract: Much of the literature on recognition and tolerance can be described as vague with respect to distribution and more specifically, as to how we could democratically change what is .
Such rights include recognition of indigenous people’s customary law and their title to historic territories, devolved self- government and political representation in larger democratic institutions, and for ethnic minorities as well as indigenous peoples affirmative action programmes, bilingual education and access to services in one’s own.
Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews is an This focus enables Quante to maintain that Hegel’s insights into the constitutively social dimensions of self-consciousness and human action can be defended against charges of “totalitarianism” and can be seen to anticipate in interesting ways work on collective intentionality in contemporary.