It is not clear whether these are features of the disorder itself, artifacts of sampling bias, or consequences of being identified as a sex offender. This increases the likelihood that they will show psychological problems. Similarly, pedophiles recruited from a correctional setting have been convicted of a crime, making it more likely that they will show anti-social characteristics.
The functions of psychotropic drugs To consider drugs only as medicinal agents or to insist that drugs be confined to prescribed medical practice is to fail to understand human nature. The remarks of the American sociologist Bernard Barber are poignant in this regard: Indeed, this has been the case since the beginning of human society.
It seems that always and everywhere drugs have been involved in just about every psychological and social function there is, just as they are involved in every physiological function. The enhancement of aesthetic experience is regarded by many as a noble pursuit of human beings.
Although there is no general agreement on either the nature or the substance of aestheticscertain kinds of experience have been highly valued for their aesthetic quality. Drugs reportedly foster this kind of nirvana and are so used by many today. For German scholar and philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche Birth of Tragedyhumans are able to lose their futile individuality in the mystic ecstasy of universal life under the Dionysiac spell of music, rhythm, and dance.
Love is a highly valued human emotion. Thus, not surprisingly, there has been a great deal of preoccupation with the feeling of love and with those conditions believed to enhance the attainment of love.
Hallucinogenic substances such as LSD are said by many to induce a feeling of lovingness. But what the drug user regards as love and what persons around the user regard as love in terms of the customary visible signs and proofs often do not coincide.
Even so, it is plausible that the dissipation of tensions, the blurring of the sense of competitionand the subsidence of hostility and overt acts of aggression all have their concomitant effect on the balance between the positive and negative forces within the individual, and, if nothing else, the ability of drugs to remove some of the hindrances to loving is valued by the user.
Native societies of the Western Hemisphere have for thousands of years utilized plants containing hallucinogenic substances. During the 19th century the Mescalero Apaches of the southwestern United States practiced a peyote rite that was adopted by many of the Plains tribes.
Psychedelic drugs have the unusual ability to evoke at least one kind of a mystical-religious experience, and positive change in religious feeling is a common finding in studies of the use of these drugs. Whether they are also capable of producing religious lives is an open question.
Their supporters argue that the drugs appear to enhance personal security and that from self-trust may spring trust of others and that this may be the psychological soil for trust in God.
Only certain people ever have such a consciousness-expanding psychedelic experience in its fullest meaning, and the question of its value to the individual must be entirely subjective.
For many people, the search for the psychedelic experience is less a noble aim and more the simple need of a psychic jolt or lift. Human conduct is a paradox of sorts. Although people go to great lengths to produce order and stability in their lives, they also go to great lengths to disrupt their sense of equanimitysometimes briefly, sometimes for extended periods of time.
Whatever the reason, people everywhere and throughout history have deliberately disrupted their own consciousness, the functioning of their own ego.
Alcohol is and has been a favourite tool for this purpose. With the rediscovery of some old drugs and the discovery of some new ones, people now have a wider variety of means for achieving this end.
Many persons face situations with which, for one reason or another, they cannot cope successfully, and in the pressure of which they cannot function effectively. In either instance, there are a variety of tranquilizing and energizing drugs that can provide psychological support.
This is not drug therapy in its more ideal sense, but it does enable large numbers of persons to face problems that they might not have otherwise been able to face. Some situations or stresses are beyond the control of the individual, and some individuals simply find themselves far more human and productive with drugs than without drugs.
An enormous amount of drug support goes on by way of familiar home remedies, such as aspirin, a luncheon cocktail, or a customary evening drink. The therapeutic use of drugs is so obvious as to require little explanation.
Many of the chemical agents that affect living cells are not capable of acting on the brain, but some of those that do are important in medical therapeutics. Examples are alcohol, general anesthetics, analgesic painkilling opiates, and hypnotics, which produce sleep—all classified as central-nervous-system depressants.
Certain other drugs—such as strychnine, nicotine, picrotoxin, caffeine, cocaine, and amphetamines—stimulate the nervous system. Most drugs truly useful in the treatment of mental illnesshowever, were unknown to science until the middle of the 20th century.
With the discovery of reserpine and chlorpromazine, some of the major forms of mental illness, especially the schizophrenias, became amenable to pharmacological treatment. These tranquilizing drugs seem to reduce the incidence of certain kinds of behaviour, particularly hyperactivity and agitation.
A second group of drugs has achieved popularity in the management of milder psychiatric conditions, particularly those in which patients manifest anxiety. This group includes drugs that have a mild calming or sedative effect and that are also useful in inducing sleep.
Not all drugs in psychiatric use have a tranquilizing action. The management of depression requires a different pharmacological effect, and the drugs of choice have been described as being euphorizing, mood-elevating, or antidepressant, depending on their particular pharmacological properties.
There are drugs useful in overactive states such as epilepsy and parkinsonism.
The so-called psychedelic drugs also may have therapeutic uses. Drugs have other functions that are not so intimately related to individual use.
Several important early studies in physiology were directed toward understanding the site and mode of action of some of these agents.Discusses the relationship and distinctions between law, ethics, and risk management.
Specific cases of surrogate decision making, withdrawal of life support, and informed consent are discussed. Includes when to contact legal counsel and how to pursue legal questions. Agricultural Education. AGRI Interdisciplinary Agricultural Science and Technology.
This course is designed to develop competencies of agricultural science teachers to teach essential elements in agricultural business, agricultural mechanization, animal science, and horticulture and crop science. SECTION RELIGIOUS DISCRIMINATION OVERVIEW.
This Section of the Compliance Manual focuses on religious discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of (Title VII). Title VII protects workers from employment discrimination based on their race, color, religion, sex, national origin, or protected activity. Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.
Medical ethics is based on a set of values that professionals can refer to in the case of any confusion or conflict.
The value of informed consent is closely related . — NIDA launches its Principles of Drug Abuse Treatment for Criminal Justice Populations: became Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) at the National Institutes of Health in May (DESPR) promotes epidemiology, services and prevention research to understand and address the range of problems related to drug.
This module delineates the special ethical and legal concerns related to the treatment and prevention of alcohol use disorders. General ethical guidelines established by the National Association of Social Workers (Code of Ethics, ) and state licensing laws are .